Applications of radiation technology in tire industry
The application of EB irradiation in tires started in the late 1950s. In 1957, a whole tire was successfully cured by Goodrich by 60Co Irradiation. However, to date. there have been few open publications on the radiation curing of whole tires. In the tire industry, the main purpose of irradiation is to prevulcanize parts of tires, in order to reduce costs and improve product quality. In the 1980s, the American Firestone Company built the world's first radiation prevulcanization production line for tires, and then America's largest tire company Goodyear also adopted the same technology. This technology was promoted and developed successively in tire companies.
Table 3.5 shows the product technical indices of the compounds of tire parts after finishing the heat vulcanization with and without radiation prevulcanization. It can be seen that the green strength and the percent recovery of the rubber increase greatly after radiation prevulcanization.
EB輻照在輪胎中的應用始于20世紀50年代后期。 1957年，Goodrich通過60Co輻照成功地硫化了整個輪胎。但是，到目前為止，關于整個輪胎的輻射硫化的公開出版物很少。在輪胎行業中，輻照的主要目的是預硫化輪胎的部件，以降低成本并提高產品質量。 20世紀80年代，美國凡世通Firestone公司建造了世界上第一條輪胎輻射預硫化生產線，而美國最大的輪胎公司固特異也采用了相同的技術。該技術在輪胎公司中相繼推廣和開發。
The application of radiation prevulcanization in tire components has several advantages. First, it can improve the green strength(GS) of rubber, to ensure tire components in the process of forming dimension stability. Second, it can reduce the thickness of various components, to increase the dosage of synthetic rubber and reuduce the cost. Third, it can speed up the curing speed, save energy energy consumption, and improve the degree of uneven curing during the vulcanization process, which is caused by the temperature difference between the inside and outside of the tire. EB radiation prevulcanization can increase the rubber adhesive strength, reduce the rubber hysteresis loss and heat build-up, hereby improving tire performance.
As early as 1950s, Firestone Co. Ltd. first carried out a research program designed to estimate possible applications of radiation to tyre manufacturing process. After more than twenty years, the company finally completed the first tyre radiation pre-vulcanization production line in the world. Pre-vulcanization of body ply is irradiated by E-beam for manufacturing of radial tyres to reduce the production cost of tyres byenhancing the green strength before crosslinking of rubber sheet. Immediately after introducing, the “radiation pre-vulcanization” concept attracted lots of foreign tyre companies to invest huge sums, and subsequently applied radiation pre-vulcanization technology in the tyre production, thus covering the following world-famous tyre manufacturers, such as Bridgestone, Michelin, Goodyear, and Continental In 1988, the output value of North American radiation vulcanized tires had reached $13.5 billion as shown in the table below.
Up to 2005, more than 60 low-energy accelerators were installed in the tire industry of Japan. More than 93% of radial tires are prevulcanized by irradiation in Japan. European and American tire companies have also applied EB radiation prevulcanization in the tire industry, but the number of production lines is smaller.
Research on radiation vulcanization of rubber started in the 1960s in China, but no EB accelerator equipment was available for rubber at that time, which restricted the industrial application of radiation prevulcanization in tires. In 2004, the National Development and Reform Commission initiated a special support program for "nonpowered nuclear technology industrialization of high technology, " and radiation vulcanization of rubber was selected as one of the radiation technologies supported by the program. With government support, this technology was successfully applied in one company, and it was confirmed that radiation vulcanization could improve the stability of tires and reduce the thickness of tire carcasses. In 2009, Henan Isotope, Aeolus Tire Co., and CAS jointly developed radiation prevulcanization application in production of truck bus radial tyre, "and finished trial production of an all-steel heavy truck radial tire(12.00R2018 154/149 K). At present,It has also been used in domestic large tire enterprses sunch as Zhongce, Linglong, Triangle and Sailun,etc.
在中國，橡膠輻射硫化的研究始于20世紀60年代，但當時沒有可用于橡膠的EB加速器設備，這限制了輻射預硫化在中國輪胎行業的應用。2004年，國家發展和改革委員會啟動了“非動力核技術高技術產業化”專項支持計劃，橡膠輻射硫化被選為該計劃支持的輻射技術之一。在政府的支持下，該技術成功應用于一家公司，并證實輻射硫化可以提高輪胎的穩定性，減少輪胎胎體的厚度。2009年，河南同輻，風神輪胎有限公司和中科院聯合開發了“輻射”預硫化在卡車客車子午線輪胎生產中的應用-“全鋼重卡子午線輪胎（12.00R2018 154/149 K）的成品試制。目前，輻照預硫化技術已在一些中國大型輪胎企業中應用，如中策、玲瓏、三角、賽輪等。
Equipment for radiation prevulcanization of tire parts
Basic structure of tires and the manufacturing process the basic construction of a radial tire is shown in Fig. 3.22. The tire manufacturing process is described below. First, in the tire building machine the semifinished products are assembled into green tires according to the tire building process, and then the green tire is made into a tire by vulcanizing with the vulcanizing machine at a certain temperature, pressure, and time. In the process of building, the tire carcass and inner liner parts are deformed, resulting in defects such as uneven distribution of polyester cord and cord migration. These problems can be overcome by increasing the thickness of the carcass and inner liner, but the material cost is higher. According to the tire parts recipe composition, structure and shape, radiation prevulcanization can be implemented to tire parts：carcass, belt, sidewall, tread, and flipper.
Figure 3.22 Basic structure chart of tire
輪胎的基本結構如圖3.22所示。 輪胎制造過程如下所述： 首先，在輪胎成型機中，根據輪胎成型工藝將半成品組裝成生胎，然后通過在一定溫度，壓力和時間下用硫化機將生胎硫化制成輪胎。在輪胎成型過程中，輪胎胎體和內襯層部件的變形會導致諸如簾線的不均勻分布和簾線遷移之類的缺陷。傳統來說，這些問題可以通過增加胎體和內襯層的厚度來克服，但材料成本更高。但是，電子預硫化技術可以根據輪胎部件配方的組成，及結構和形狀的分析，對輪胎部件如胎體帶束層,胎側,胎面及胎唇護布實施輻射預硫化。
輪胎預硫化設備整體運行圖 Electron beam processing system
注：作品源于：（1）Radiation Technology for Advanced Materials:: From Basic to Modern Applications 編者：Guozhong Wu， Maolin Zhai， Mozhen Wang（2）輻射化工產業發展研究http://www.shjxfz.com/new/sh/news_show.asp?id=74，版權歸作者/譯者所有。若有侵權，請于我們聯系，將第一時間刪除相關內容。
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